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              Human ethics

              At Deakin, we're committed to helping our researchers understand and meet the ethical obligations associated with human research. We do this through a fast and efficient ethics review process.

              What is human research ethics?

              Human research is research conducted with or about people or their data or tissue.

              All human interaction, including the interaction involved in human research, has ethical dimensions.

              Ethical conduct within research is more than simply doing the ‘right thing’. To comply with ethics protocols, research must involve acting in the right spirit, out of an abiding respect and concern for fellow humans1.

              National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, 2007 (updated 2018)

              Governing human research ethics

              All human research conducted at Deakin is assessed by an ethical review body for its ethical acceptability and for its compliance with:

              • the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research, 2018
              • the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, 2007 (updated 2018)
              • other relevant guidelines and legislation.

              These documents are available to download from the Guidelines section at the bottom of this page.

              Role of the ethics review bodies

              Human Research Ethics Committees are responsible for ensuring that all human research complies with the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (the National Statement) and is ethically acceptable.

              The Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee (DUHREC)

              DUHREC is comprised of two panels – one based at Geelong, and the other in Melbourne. The composition of each panel complies with the requirements of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, 2007 (updated 2018).

              Geelong Panel 2019

              ChairA/Prof Lisa Hanna
              Deputy Chair Dr Victoria Stead
              BiostatisticianDr Steve Bowe
              Layman Mr Darcy Clissold
              LaymanMr Adrian Robertson
              Laywoman Ms Judith Vardy
              LaywomanMs Anne Marie Leslie
              LaywomanMs Joan Anson
              Pastoral Carer Rev Dr Tim Smith
              Professional Care Prof Gerard Gill
              Professional Care Prof Trisha Dunning
              LawyerMs Michelle Couper
              LawyerTBA
              Researcher Dr Phillip Swain
              ResearcherA/Prof Anna Kilderry
              ResearcherMr Nic Crooks
              ResearcherA/Prof Patsie Frawley
              ResearcherA/Prof Coral Campbell

              Melbourne Panel 2019

              ChairA/Prof Lisa Hanna
              Deputy Chair Dr Victoria Stead
              Biostatistician Dr Mohammadreza Mohebbi
              Lawyer Mr Paul Natoli
              Lawyer TBA
              Layman Dr Tony Dawson
              LaymanTBA
              LaywomanTBA
              Laywoman Dr Jenny Wajsenberg
              Pastoral Carer Rev Chris Appleby 
              Professional Carer Dr Louis Cukierman
              Professional Carer TBA
              ResearcherDr Christian Hyde
              Researcher A/Prof Andrea Vocino
              ResearcherA/Prof Mark Stokes
              Researcher Dr Claudia Strugnell
              ResearcherProf Tarquam McKenna
              ResearcherA/Prof Grazyna Zajdow
              ResearcherA/Prof Ambika Zutshi
              ResearcherDr Severine Lamon
              ResearcherDr Simon James

              The DUHREC Terms of Reference are reviewed once a year.

              Human Ethics Advisory Groups (HEAGs)

              The National Statement recognises that research may carry different levels of risk and defines 'low risk research' as research in which the only foreseeable risk is one of discomfort.

              At Deakin, low risk research is reviewed by HEAGs composed of specially trained academic staff members from within each of our four faculties (Arts and Education; Business and Law; Health; and Science, Engineering and Built Environment).

              The HEAG Terms of Reference are reviewed once a year.

              What are the rights of research participants?

              The values of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct for in Human Researchrespect for human beings, research merit and integrity, justice and beneficence – helps to shape a relationship of trust, mutual responsibility and ethical equality.

              Research merit and integrity

              Unless proposed research has merit and the researchers who are to carry out the research have integrity, the involvement of human participants in the research cannot be ethically justifiable2.

              As a participant in research at Deakin, you can be assured that the project you have volunteered for has been assessed by an ethics review body to ensure that:

              • the benefit of the research justifies any associated burdens or risks
              • it is designed in such a way that it will meet its aims
              • it is based on all the available evidence from previous research studies
              • participants will be shown respect throughout their involvement in the research
              • it is conducted or supervised by people who have appropriate qualifications, skills and experience
              • the appropriate facilities and resources are available to conduct the project
              • it is carried out according to recognised principles of research conduct
              • it will be honestly conducted and reported.

              The expectations described above are based upon the requirements outlined in section 1 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007.

              National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 p. 12-13.

              Justice

              At a profound level, justice involves a regard for the human sameness that each person shares with every other. Human beings have a deep need to be treated in accordance with such justice, which includes distributive justice and procedural justice3.

              As a participant in research at Deakin, you can be assured that the project you have volunteered for has been assessed by an ethics review body to ensure that:

              • the choice by researchers to include or exclude particular groups of participants is fair given the nature of the research
              • the process by which you were recruited was fair
              • you will not be unfairly burdened by your participation
              • the benefits of participating in the research are fairly distributed
              • you will not be exploited as a participant in the research
              • the benefits of the research will be made accessible fairly
              • the outcomes of the research will be made accessible to you in a timely and clear way.

              The expectations described above are based upon the requirements outlined in section 1 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007.

              National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 p. 12-13.

              Beneficence

              Researchers exercise beneficence in several ways: in assessing and taking account of the risks of harm and the potential benefits of research to participants and to the wider community; in being sensitive to the welfare and interests of people involved in their research; and in reflecting on the social and cultural implications of their work4.

              As a participant in research at Deakin, you can be assured the project you have volunteered for has been assessed by an ethics review body to ensure that:

              • the likely benefit of the research justifies any risk of harm or discomfort to you
              • the project has been designed to minimise the any risk of harm or discomfort to you
              • you are fully informed of what the potential benefits and risks are
              • the researchers are responsible for your welfare as a participant in their project
              • if you won't personally receive a benefit from participating in the research, the risks to you are lower than might otherwise be ethically acceptable
              • if the risks to you became unjustifiable in light of the benefits, the research would be suspended while a decision regarding whether it should be discontinued or modified was made. This decision could involve consultation between researchers, participants and the ethics review body.

              National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 p. 12-13.

              Respect

              Respect involves recognising that each human being has value in himself or herself and that this value must inform all interaction between people. Such respect includes recognising the value of human autonomy – the capacity to determine one's own life and make one's own decisions. 

              But respect goes further than this. It also involves providing for the protection of those with diminished or no autonomy, as well as empowering them where possible and protecting and helping people whenever it would be wrong not to do so5.

              That means that as a participant in research at Deakin, you can be assured the project you have volunteered for has been assessed by an ethics review body to ensure that:

              • it has due regard for your welfare, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage, and that of anyone you identify with as a participant
              • the researchers will respect your privacy, confidentiality, any cultural sensitivities, and if relevant, those of your community
              • any specific agreements made with you, or your community will be fulfilled
              • you will be given the opportunity to make your own decisions about your ongoing participation in the research
              • where you are not able to make your own decision about participating in the research, or have diminished capacity to do so, the researchers will show respect for you by empowering you to do so where possible, and providing for your protection as necessary.

              The expectations described above are based upon the requirements outlined in section 1 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007.

              National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 p. 12-13.

              Research participants providing feedback

              The National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research encourages institutions to regularly assess their ethical review processes. It states that where, possible the assessment should be informed by the documented experience of research participants.

              General Feedback

              As a research participant at Deakin, you can expect to be involved in a high-quality, ethically sound project. As part of our efforts to ensure this is the case, we would welcome your feedback regarding how well you feel we met the expectations described in the participant rights above and any other expectations you may have had prior to your participation.

              Please ensure that you indicate whether you would like us to follow up with you regarding your feedback.

              You can provide this feedback by email, phone or mail:

              Human Research Ethics Office
              General enquiries
              +61 3 9251 7123
              Email the Human Research Ethics Office

              Human Research Ethics Office
              Deakin Research Integrity
              Deakin University 
              221 Burwood Hwy
              Burwood VIC 3125

              Complaints handling process

              If you have been a participant in research at Deakin University or are another interested party, and you feel that your experience didn't meet the expectations described in participant rights and/or any other expectations you may have had prior to your involvement, please notify us via the contact details below.

              When doing so, please provide as many details as possible, including things such as:

              • the reference number and title of the project
              • the names of any researchers involved in the project
              • the nature of your dissatisfaction with the project.

              Please note: the reference number, title and names of the researchers involved in the project should have been provided to you on the Plain Language Statement you received prior to providing your consent to take part in the study.

              When providing your feedback, please ensure that you indicate whether you:

              • are happy for us to pass this feedback onto the researcher(s) involved and if so, whether you are happy to be identified
              • would like us to follow up with you regarding your feedback, and if not,
              • the specific action you are requesting that we take in response to your feedback, if any.

              Researchers who receive a complaint about their project will report that complaint to the ethics office in writing as soon as possible.

              Where the complaint is received by ethics office staff, the person responsible for handling complaints will be informed as soon as possible upon its receipt.

              A response will be made to the complainant as soon as possible if the complaint is made by email or via the research team.

              If possible the complaint should be resolved in the initial contact with the complainant.

              If it is not possible to resolve the matter immediately, the complainant’s permission will be sought to contact the researcher(s) concerned and inform them of the complaint.

              The person handling the complaint will work together with the researcher(s) and the complainant to resolve the matter Where a resolution is not able to be reached, the matter will be taken to the Pro Vice Chancellor Researcher Development and Integrity, the Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee (DUHREC) Chair and/or to the researcher(s) Head of School or Strategic Research Centre who will take further steps to seek an acceptable resolution for all concerned.

              A report will be made to DUHREC regarding the complaint and its resolution.

              A comprehensive record will be kept of the complaint, its handling, resolution and report to DUHREC.

              Human Research Ethics Office
              Complaints management 
              +61 3 9251 7129
              Email the Human Research Ethics Office

              Human Research Ethics Office
              Deakin Research Integrity 
              Deakin University 
              221 Burwood Hwy
              Burwood VIC 3125

              Guidelines

              There are a number of other guidelines and legislation which may apply to certain types of human research, with the most common being the Commonwealth and State-based privacy legislation.

              Other guidelines and legislation apply to human research that involves things such as ionising radiation, assisted reproductive technology, human embryos, or the inclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants.

              Researchers appealing a decision by DUHREC or a HEAG

              There can be valid differences of opinion on whether a research proposal meets the requirements of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, 2007 (updated 2018).  Researchers are welcome to put forward an alternative during the review process if they disagree with the position the committee has taken.  When stating their case, the researchers should make reference to the National Statement principles and any other relevant guidelines to support their argument.

              If the researcher is unsatisfied with the final decision of the review body, a formal complaint can be made to the Pro Vice-Chancellor Researcher Development and Integrity.  Where the researcher remains unsatisfied with the resolution of their complaint, they may make a further complaint to the Victorian Ombudsman (National Statement Sections 5.6.4-5.6.7).

              Contact us

              Human Research Ethics Office 
              +61 3 9251 7123
              Email the Human Research Ethics Office
              Send an online enquiry

              Deakin Research Integrity
              Deakin University 
              221 Burwood Hwy
              Burwood, VIC 3125

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              Restricted resources for staff and students in Human Ethics.

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